A sample of individual compatibility

A sample of individual compatibilityHow is a sample of individual compatibility? For tests on individual compatibility use the serum, not plasma!) the recipient's blood and canned blood (erythrocytes, leukocytes) donor. The serum of the patient should be fresh, made on the same day or the day before. To obtain the serum of the patient take 4-5 ml of blood from a vein into a clean tube without stabilizer. After clotting, blood clot detaches from the serum, which is used for holding samples for compatibility. The first test for the compatibility group system ABO is performed at room temperature. On a plate put 2 drops of the blood serum of the patient, there also add a small drop of blood at a ratio of 1:10 and mixed by rocking or glass rod. In the absence of agglutination after 5 minutes (no more!) we should assume that the blood is compatible. If there is agglutination, blood donor is incompatible with the blood of the patient and should not be transfused. How is the test for compatibility on RH factor? After conducting the first test, you must conduct a test for compatibility by Rh factor. There are 2 method available - reaction in serum environment and gelatin. First method: in a Petri dish put 1-2 drops of the serum of the patient and a small drop of blood, after which it for 10 minutes, put in a water bath ( 46~ 48'). The presence of agglutination indicates incompatibility. Second method: at the bottom of the test tube is placed a small drop of blood, add 2 drops of warmed 10 % solution of gelatin and 2 drops of serum of the patient. After 10 minutes incubation in a water bath. the temperature is 46 to 48 'in a test tube add 5 ml of warmed isotonic sodium chloride. 'The presence of agglutination indicates incompatibility between the blood donor and the recipient. It should be noted that isoimmune antibodies and antibodies other systems are identified in the same manner as antibodies anti-Rh, and some as antibodies systems AVO. Therefore, the incompatibility of blood donor by these antibodies may be detected when performing these tests on compatibility. As a review of donor blood? After determining the blood group and rhesus factor to select appropriate donor blood, preferably odnogruppovoy. RH-negative recipients transfused only RH-negative blood. Check the passport details of ampoules, vials or plastic bags with canned blood (date of capture, the number of operational log, name of institution, name of the physician and the donor). Blood group on the label must be clearly identified and duplicated color stripe: blue for group II, red for group III, yellow for the IV group. Pay attention to the integrity and tightness of the package. The pooled blood must be transparent yellowish or greenish upper layer (plasma) and dark-red bottom (erythrocytes), does not contain clots, films, flakes. Pink color layer plasma indicates hemolysis of the blood. Unsuitable blood for transfusion is not used. How is the preparation for blood transfusion? If the blood is cold, its warm at room temperature (not more than one hour). In the event of urgent infusion insufficiently warmed his blood is produced slowly, as it can stop the heart. Blood transfusion should be carried out not earlier than in 2 hours after a meal. Before the transfusion, using a set of standard sera determine the blood group of the donor (the blood Bank), and preferably re - the blood group of the recipient. Test is carried out on individual compatibility and extra test for compatibility on RH factor. If the blood is harvested in the bottle, break the disk metal cap, exposing the rubber or plastic tube handle her alcohol and 5 % solution of iodine, after which pierce two thick needles - long and short (long needle while turning the bottle must be above the level of the blood). Short needle is connected sterile system for transfusion (factory plastic disposable or specially prepared). Before filling the formed elements and plasma re-mix slow turning over of the bottle and the rotation axis. Produce venipuncture or venesection and connect the cannula filled system with a needle or catheter. What is a biological test for compatibility? Biological test is the final test of the compatibility. It starts with transfusion. Inkjet pour 10-15 ml of blood (erythrocyte mass, suspension, plasma), then within 3 minutes observing the condition of the patient. In the absence of events incompatibility (shortness of breath, facial flushing, stomach pain, back pain, anxiety) enter again 10-15 ml and see again for 3 minutes. This procedure was repeated three times. If no reaction, continue the infusion. In case of incompatibility, in addition to the above complaints, the patient becomes small and frequent pulse quickens and becomes shallow breath, the skin becomes first cyanothece-red color, then fades. In such cases, without waiting for the development of blood transfusion shock, it is necessary to stop the transfusion. During blood transfusion to the patient under General anesthesia when evaluating a biological sample should be considered objective indicators (frequency and content of the pulse, blood pressure, colour of skin, hemolysis, the color of urine). What manipulations are carried out after the procedure blood transfusion? Finish pouring, leaving in vial 5 - 10 ml of blood, and stored for 2 days in the refrigerator in case of late complications and the need for blood tests. Then soaked the label off the bottle, dried and glued in history. At the end of the transfusion, the patient 2 hours left in the bed. The first portion of the urine shows doctor and sent for analysis. Measure urine output, body temperature. What are the possible complications of transfusion? Complication of blood transfusion is the most dangerous air embolism, thrombophlebitis and thromboembolism, post-transfusion hepatitis.


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